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Hello, I am Yasmin This blog is a work of escola.As girls in my group are: Natalia, Thayne, Karol, Angela, Jessica and I (: I hope you enjoy. kisses: *

quinta-feira, 14 de julho de 2011


The vegetation of Trinidad is very similar to that of Venezuela: the plains in the drier parts surrounded by lush vegetation. Are coconuts, sugarcane, cocoa, coffee, tobacco as the main crops of the region. The wildlife is very rich in wildlife, especially butterflies and 622 species of 700 different types of orchids.

Tobago has 19 species of hummingbirds and koalas, seven from the island. Among the most common animals in your soil can cite the beetles, the shell sand, and spotted spiny lobster, quail dove, the hummingbird wing 'Sabre', the siskin (bird) and mallard Montserrat in the Caribbean.

Natural history of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago has some of the richest natural communities in the Caribbean. Unlike most of the islands of the Caribbean, Trinidad and Tobago supports a primarily South American flora and fauna. As a result, Trinidad and Tobago is richer in plant and animal species than is the rest of the Caribbean. However, rates of endemism are lower than in the rest of the Caribbean because most of the species in Trinidad and Tobago are also found on the South American mainland.

Reptiles and Amphibians

In addition to the snakes (which range in size from some of the world's smallest to the world's largest) which may be seen listed at the link below, Trinidad and Tobago is home to a host of other interesting herpetofauna [see Boos (2001) and Murphy (1997)]. Some (but certainly not all) of the reptiles and amphibians of Trinidad and Tobago are noted below.
There are a number of lizards ranging in size from just over an inch or two in length to the huge 6-foot (1.8 m) long Green Iguana (Iguana iguana). The 'so called' Luminous Lizard  makes its home in the mouths of caves and cool stream banks on the high peaks, ridges and high valleys of the Northern Range of Trinidad and is found nowhere else on Earth. The large Tegu or Matte as it is locally called and the Green Iguana (very common, even in sub-urban areas) are considered delicacies on both Trinidad and Tobago. A number of Anole species may be easily observed, even in sub-urban areas. Only Anolis chrysolepis is a Trinidad native, with all other Anoles being relatively recently introduced. Other common lizards include macro-teiids (or whip-tailed lizards) such as the Ameiva ameiva (locally called the Zandolie or Ground lizard and common even in sub-urban gardens) and Cnemindophorus lemniscatus (most widely seen along in some coastal areas of Tobago and on Trinidad's east and south coasts and on the islands of Chacachacare and Huevos). Nocturnally active geckos of the genera Thecadactylus and Hemidactylus are common in old and rural buildings on both islands and are commonly referred to as 'mabouias' and 'wood slaves' respectively. There are a number of small colourful diurnal geckos of the genus Gonatodes that are present. One of them, Gonatodes ocellatus is endemic to Tobago while another, Gonatodes vittatus or the 'streak lizard' as it is locally known, is very common and can be seen in most sub-urban and even urban backyards in Trinidad. The tiny Mole's gecko Sphaerodactylus molei is found on both islands and is among the smallest of lizards in the world.
There are two species of legless lizards Amphisbaena alba and Amphisbaena fuliginosa are known as 'two headed' snakes on Trinidad. They spend much of their lives burrowing in the soil and are often associated with the nests of leaf-cutter ants Atta, which form part of their diet.
Terrestrial turtles, tortoises and marine turtles make their homes on these islands. The giant Leather Backed Turtle the Hawksbill Turtle ,the Loggerhead Turtle , the Olive Ridley Turtle  and the Green Sea Turtle  are marine species that all nest on the islands' beaches or frequent their coastal waters. The land dwelling yellow-footed Tortoise  or Morocoy as it is locally known is threatened by high levels of poaching. The odd mata-mata turtle is known to inhabit the Nariva Swamp. The wood-turtle locally known as the Galap is found in and near rivers, streams and swamps and is often kept as a pet. All the marine turtle species are threatened by illegal hunting activity, although there has been some success achieved by measures taken to educate the public and ensure species conservation since the 1970s.
The Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus) which may grow up to about 8 feet (2.4 m) in length shares its habitat in the Nariva Swamp on Trinidad's east coast with the mighty Green Anaconda.Caiman are to be found throughout both islands in slow moving fresh or brackish water. They are shy creatures and pose no real threat to humans unless intentionally provoked or approached while nesting. It is generally considered that the few records of both the American Crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) as well as the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) in the waters of Trinidad and Tobago were, for the most part, waifs from mainland South America.
A number of frogs and toads inhabit the islands, including the well known huge Marine or Cane Toad  locally known as the Crapaud (pronounced crah-poh) and the tiny, colourful, rare endemic species known as the El Tucuche Golden Tree Frog found only in the giant epiphitic bromeliads at the summits of Trinidad's two highest peaks. The strangest of all Trinidad's frogs is the highly aquatic Suriname Toad or Pipa Toad (Pipa pipa), the tadpoles of which develop in the skin tissue of the mother's back, before bursting out and emerging as miniature replicas of the adult frogs. The Giant Tree Frog  known locally as the giant Flying Frog is commonly heard calling after dusk from the vegetation along streams in Trinidad. The two frog species of the genus Manophryne (one of which is endemic to Trinidad and the other endemic to Tobago) demonstrate a degree of parental care as the tadpoles are transported on the backs of the adult males before a suitable body of water is found where they may be left to develop. The southwestern peninsular of Trinidad is home to a rather diverse community of frogs, with at least one  being known only from that area. Trinidad is also reputedly home to a Caecilian  (a legless amphibian with an eel-like body that is rarely observed due to its habitat preference) although only one specimen has ever been scientifically documented from Trinidad.
It is unfortunate to note that although all snakes (with the exception of the potentially dangerous vipers and corals) are protected by law in Trinidad and Tobago, the human population at large is not generally tolerant of snakes, and even harmless snakes found near human dwellings, farms and gardens are often killed on sight. More public awareness is needed to dispel misconceptions about snakes as well as to sensitize the population to the ecological importance of snakes.

Trinidad and Tobago are extremely rich in neotropical invertebrate fauna. Several hundred species of butterflies (including the brilliant blue Emperor Butterfly Morpho peleides) and beetles are to be found on the islands, many in the Tropical Forests. Barcant (1970) lists 617 species of butterfly for the 2 islands of which 123 occur on Tobago. The leaf cutter ant (Atta) is easily observed, even in urban environments. Soldier ants may be observed in forested areas. The largest specimens of centipedes may be found particularly in the drier forests of the Northwestern Peninsular of Trinidad (the Chaguaramas Peninsular) as well as the nearby tiny off shore islands. A few species of large tarantulas may be found in forested areas and even in houses at the forest edge. The arthropod life of Trinidad and Tobago has not been well studied and it is an entomologist's paradise waiting to be discovered, with many species remaining undocumented.
Large land snails and many species of crustaceans (terrestrial, freshwater and marine) are among the other invertebrates that may be easily observed in Trinidad and Tobago.

Marine communities

Trinidad's western and southern coastal waters are highly influenced by the outflow of freshwater from the adjacent Orinoco River of Venezuela which is less than 8 miles (13 km) away from Trinidad at the closest point. As such, the waters here are fairly low in salinity and high in sediment/nutrient content and relatively shallow. These facts coupled with the highly sheltered nature of the Gulf of Paria and the Columbus Channel respectively, create ideal breeding/spawning grounds for many marine fishes and invertebrates, including shrimp.
Various 'sporting' fish are present in the waters of both islands and include huge grouper, marlin, barracuda and dolphin-fish. Fish popularly caught and eaten include carite, kingfish and red snapper.
As mentioned in the section above on the reptilian fauna of Trinidad and Tobago, a number of species of marine turtles including the Leather Backed Turtle, the Hawksbill Turtle, the Loggerhead Turtle, the Olive Ridley Turtle and the Green Sea Turtle both live in the waters around and nest on the beaches of both islands.
Whales and dolphins were far more common to Trinidad's waters in earlier times, but the very rigorous whaling industry of the 19th century decimated the population of whales in the Gulf of Paria. Today, dolphins may still be regularly observed, particularly off the shore of the northwestern Chaguaramas peninsular. Pilot whales have been observed to beach themselves on a few occasions during the 1990s and a small pod of killer whales were caught in a fisherman's net during the 1980s.
Whale sharks (the largest of all fishes) have been observed around the oil rigs in the southern part of the Gulf of Paria. Hammerhead sharks are commonly caught by fishermen and shark is considered a delicacy among the human population of both islands.
The waters of Tobago are less affected by the outflow of fresh water from the Orinoco and as such are far more saline and clearer than that of Trinidad. A number of coral reefs are thus able to exist around Tobago, the most famous being the Buccoo Reef. Tobago's reefs are reputedly home to the largest examples of brain coral. Also present are huge and gentle manta rays, impressive moray eels, parrot fish, angel fish and a host of other colourful tropical coral reef species.


Trinidad and Tobago is home to a little over 100 species of mammals, a large percentage of them being bats (one of them being a fishing bat). Another of the bat species, the Vampire Bat, does not deserve its notorious reputation, as it feeds almost exclusively on non-human blood. Carnivorous mammals include the Ocelot, the Tayra, the Crab-eating Raccoon and the Neotropical River Otter. Large herbivores include the Red Brocket, the Collared Peccary and the highly endangered West Indian Manatee (a few of which persist in the ecologically diverse Nariva Swamp on Trinidad's east coast). The Red Howler Monkey and the White-fronted Capuchin are the country's two native primate species. The Silky Anteater and its relative the Tamandua are two of the most bizarre creatures of Trinidad's forests. Other small to medium sized mammals present include the agouti, the paca, the prehensile-tailed porcupine, the Nine-banded Armadillo and a few species of opossum. A number of small rodents including a species of squirrel are native to the islands. A few Cetacean species (whales and dolphins) including Pilot Whales and Orcas have been known to occur in the seas around Trinidad. Whales were once far more common in Trinidad's Gulf of Paria (which Columbus called Golfo de la Ballena or the Gulf of Whales) but a rigorous whaling industry during the 19th century severely reduced the population of various species that once thrived there. The Indian Mongoose was introduced during colonial times to mainly help to control the population of rats (and possibly to a lesser extent snakes) found on the Trinidad's plantations. It is very important to note that the populations of many of the game mammals as well as predatory mammals are locally threatened in Trinidad and Tobago due mainly to heavy hunting/poaching and habitat loss/fragmentation, with a number of species already having been extirpated on the island of Tobago.


468 species of birds have been recorded in Trinidad and Tobago. There are few places in the world where so many birds can be seen in such a small area, and many of them are unique, very rare, or of particular interest. They range from the many species of hummingbird to the primitive cave-dwelling oilbird (that uses sonar to fly in the dark) to the spectacularly beautiful Scarlet Ibis. The islands are within a few miles of Venezuela, and the species are therefore typical of tropical South America. However, the variety is impoverished compared to the mainland, as would be expected with small islands.
The resident breeding birds are augmented in the northern winter by migrants from North America.
Species occur on both islands except where indicated. Tobago has only about half the number of bird species of Trinidad, but 22 birds have occurred only on the smaller island, including 12 breeding species.

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